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13th Euro-Global Conference on Infectious Diseases, will be organized around the theme “Advanced epidemiological methods during Covid-19”
Euro Infectious Diseases 2021 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Euro Infectious Diseases 2021
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An infection occurs when a microorganism enters a person’s body and causes harm. An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disease or communicable disease, is an illness resulting from an infection. The microorganism uses that person’s body to sustain itself, reproduce, and colonize. These infectious microscopic organisms are known as pathogens, and they can multiply quickly.
- Track 1-1Bacteria
- Track 1-2viruses
- Track 1-3Fungi
- Track 1-4Pyelonephritis
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms, also known as prokaryotes.
Experts estimate that there are at least 1 nonillion bacteria on Earth. A nonillion is a 1 followed by 30 zeros. Much of the Earth’s biomass comprises bacteria.
Bacteria take three main shapes:
- Spherical: These are known as cocci.
- Rod-shaped: These have the name bacilli.
- Spiral: Coiled bacteria are known as spirilla. If the coil of a spirillum is particularly tight, scientists call it a spirochete.
Bacteria can live in almost any type of environment, from extreme heat to intense cold, and some can even survive in radioactive waste.
There are trillions of strains of bacteria, and few cause diseases in humans. Some of them live inside the human body, such as in the gut or airways, without causing harm.
Some “good” bacteria attack “bad” bacteria and prevent them from causing sickness. However, some bacterial diseases can be deadly.
- Track 2-1Cholera
- Track 2-2Diphtheria
- Track 2-3Dysentery
- Track 2-4Tuberculosis
- Track 2-5Typhoid
- Track 2-6Typhus
- Track 2-7Bubonic plague
Viral infections occur due to infection with a virus. Viruses contain a small piece of genetic code, and a coat of protein and lipid (fat) molecules protects them. Viruses invade a host and attach themselves to a cell. As they enter the cell, they release their genetic material. This material forces the cell to replicate the virus, and the virus multiplies. When the cell dies, it releases new viruses, which infect new cells.
Not all viruses destroy their host cell, however. Some of them change the function of the cell. Some viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), can lead to cancer by forcing cells to replicate in an uncontrolled way. A virus can also target certain age groups, such as infants or young children. Viruses may remain dormant for a period before multiplying again. The person with the virus can appear to have fully recovered, but they may get sick again when the virus reactivates.
- Track 3-1Coronavirus
- Track 3-2Ebola
- Track 3-3Influenza
- Track 3-4Hepatitis C
- Track 3-5HIV
- Track 3-6Zika virus
- Track 3-7COVID-19
- Track 3-8Herpes simplex virus
- Track 3-9Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV)
- Track 3-10Polio
A fungus is often a multicellular parasite that can decompose and absorb organic matter using an enzyme. However, some types, such as yeasts, are single celled. Fungi almost always reproduce by spreading single celled spores. The structure of a fungus is usually long and cylindrical, with small filaments branching from the main body. There are approximately 5.1 million species of fungus.
Many fungal infections develop in the upper layers of the skin, and some progress to the deeper layers. Inhaled yeast or mold spores can sometimes lead to fungal infections, such as pneumonia, or infections throughout the body. These are also known as systemic infections. The body usually has a population of good bacteria that help maintain the balance of microorganisms.
These line the intestines, mouth, vagina, and other parts of the body. Those with a higher risk of developing a fungal infection include people who: use antibiotics for a long time have a weakened immune system, due, for example, to living with HIV or diabetes or receiving chemotherapy treatment have undergone a transplant, as they take medications to prevent their body from rejecting the new organ.
- Track 4-1Coccidioidomycosis
- Track 4-2Histoplasmosis
- Track 4-3Candidiasis
- Track 4-4Athlete’s foot
- Track 4-5Ringworm
- Track 4-6Eye infections
Prions are misfolded proteins with the ability to transmit their misfolded shape onto normal variants of the same protein.
They characterize several fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases in humans and many other animals. It is not known what causes the normal protein to misfold, but the abnormal three-dimensional structure is suspected of conferring infectious properties, collapsing nearby protein molecules into the same shape. The word prion derives from "proteinaceous infectious particle".
The hypothesized role of a protein as an infectious agent stands in contrast to all other known infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, all of which contain nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, or both).
- Track 5-1Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
- Track 5-2Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)
- Track 5-3Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome
- Track 5-4Fatal Familial Insomnia
- Track 5-5Kuru
A parasite is an organism that lives within or on a host. The host is another organism. The parasite uses the host’s resources to fuel its life cycle. It uses the host’s resources to maintain itself. Parasites vary widely. Around 70 percent are not visible to the human eye, such as the malarial parasite, but some worm parasites can reach over 30 meters in length.
Parasites are not a disease, but they can spread diseases. Different parasites have different effects.
These live inside the host. They include heartworm, tapeworm, and flatworms. An intercellular parasite lives in the spaces within the host’s body, within the host’s cells. They include bacteria and viruses.
Endoparasites rely on a third organism, known as the vector, or carrier. The vector transmits the endoparasite to the host. The mosquito is a vector for many parasites, including the protozoan known as Plasmodium, which causes malaria.
These feed on other parasites in a relationship known as hyper parasitism. A flea lives on a dog, but the flea may have a protozoan in its digestive tract. The protozoan is the hyperparasite.
- Track 6-1Protozoa
- Track 6-2Helminths
- Track 6-3Ectoparasites
Your skin is the largest organ of your body. Its function is to protect your body from infection. Sometimes the skin itself becomes infected. Skin infections are caused by a wide variety of germs, and symptoms can vary from mild to serious. Mild infections may be treatable with over-the-counter medications and home remedies, whereas other infections may require medical attention.
- Track 7-1Bacterial skin infections
- Track 7-2Viral skin infections
- Track 7-3Fungal skin infections
- Track 7-4Parasitic skin infection
Eye infections occur when some harmful organism invades an area of your eye. The source of the infection is often bacterial or viral, but it may be due to some other cause. Treatment depends on the cause of the infection. Despite the cause, the symptoms that occur when you have an eye infection are typically similar. If you suspect you have an eye infection, have your physician evaluate the problem.
There can be numerous types of eye infections that can include conjunctivitis, keratitis, acanthamoeba keratitis, blepharitis, uveitis, cellulitis, ocular herpes, endophthalmitis, chlamydia trachomatis, a sty, dacryostenosis corneal ulcers, and orbital cellulitis. When it comes to dealing with potential eye infections, prevention is the best cure.
- Track 8-1Conjunctivitis
- Track 8-2Keratitis
- Track 8-3Acanthamoeba Keratitis
- Track 8-4Blepharitis
- Track 8-5Ocular Herpes
- Track 8-6Uveitis
A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection in any part of your urinary system, which includes your kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. If you are a woman, your chance of getting a urinary tract infection is high. Some experts rank your lifetime risk of getting one as high as 1 in 2, with many women having repeat infections, sometimes for years. About 1 in 10 men will get a UTI in their lifetime.
- Track 9-1Cystitis
- Track 9-2Urethritis
Viruses and microorganisms sometimes invade the body, infecting various organs and causing everything from mild disturbances to serious problems. Bacterial organisms are often to blame, but animal parasites and fungi can also cause infection. Neurological infections occur when these viruses and organisms invade the nervous system.
Symptoms of Infection
Pain, swelling, redness, impaired function and fever are all characteristics of an infection. There may also be heat at the site of the infected area. In the case of some viral infections, drowsiness, confusion, and convulsions may occur.
- Track 10-1Encephalitis
- Track 10-2Meningitis
- Track 10-3AIDS
Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. The diseases are less prevalent in temperate climates, due in part to the occurrence of a cold season, which controls the insect population by forcing hibernation. However, many were present in northern Europe and northern America in the 17th and 18th centuries before modern understanding of disease causation.
The initial impetus for tropical medicine was to protect the health of colonial settlers, notably in India under the British Raj. Insects such as mosquitoes and flies are by far the most common disease carrier, or vector. These insects may carry a parasite, bacterium or virus that is infectious to humans and animals. Most often disease is transmitted by an insect "bite", which causes transmission of the infectious agent through subcutaneous blood exchange. Vaccines are not available for most of the diseases listed here, and many do not have cures.
Human exploration of tropical rainforests, deforestation, rising immigration and increased international air travel and other tourism to tropical regions has led to an increased incidence of such diseases to non-tropical countries.
- Track 11-1Dengue
- Track 11-2Rabies
- Track 11-3Trachoma
- Track 11-4Leprosy
- Track 11-5Leishmaniases
- Track 11-6Foodborne trematodiases
Infection prevention and control (IPC) is a scientific approach and practical solution designed to prevent harm caused by infection to patients and health workers. It is grounded in infectious diseases, epidemiology, social science, and health system strengthening. IPC occupies a unique position in the field of patient safety and quality universal health coverage since it is relevant to health workers and patients at every single health-care encounter. No country, no health-care facility, even within the most advanced and sophisticated health-care systems, can claim to be free of the problem of health care-associated infections. The need for having IPC programmes nationally and at the facility level is clearly reinforced within the WHO 100 Core Health Indicators list.
- Track 12-1Hand hygiene
- Track 12-2Prevention of surgical site infections
- Track 12-3Injection safety
- Track 12-4Ebola response and recovery
Antibiotics are grouped into "families" of similar types. Bacteria also are put together in groups of similar types, such as streptococcus or E. coli. Certain types of bacteria are especially susceptible to particular classes of antibiotics. Treatment can be targeted more precisely if your doctor knows what type of bacteria you are infected with. Antibiotics are usually reserved for bacterial infections because these types of drugs have no effect on illnesses caused by viruses. But sometimes it is difficult to tell which type of germ is at work. For example, pneumonia can be caused by a bacterium, a virus, a fungus, or a parasite. The overuse of antibiotics has resulted in several types of bacteria developing resistance to one or more varieties of antibiotics. This makes these bacteria much more difficult to treat.
- Track 13-1Antivirals
- Track 13-2Antifungals
- Track 13-3Anti-parasitic