Day 1 :
University of Oslo, Norway
Keynote: Synergy (not polarization) between Th1 and Th2 responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: Evidence from an endemic setting
Time : 10:05-10:50
Fekadu Abebe (PhD) is a senior scientist at the University of Oslo, Norway. He is an expert in infection immunity at the University of Oslo, where he is involved in teaching and supervision of PhD and MPH students. He has led several projects related to tuberculosis including studies of biomarkers of protective immunity against tuberculosis in human population in endemic setting. He has published over 50 articles in peer reviewed scientific journals (mostly as first or senior author).
At present, tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills an estimated 2 million people globally, more people than HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. The only licensed vaccine currently in use, BCG does not control Mtb transmission. Efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine against Mtb infection during the last three decades have achieved moderate success because of lack of knowledge about correlates of protective immunity and the Th1/Th2 paradigm. According to the Th1/Th2 paradigmTh1 cells protect against intracellular pathogens, whereas Th2 cells protect against extracellular pathogen. In the past, it was generally accepted that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing Th1 cells are protective against Mtb infection, whereas the role antibodies was ignored. Earlier, we have argued that antibodies may play a crucial role against TB (Abebe & Bjune, 2007) and that IFN-γ may not be the right marker for protective immunity against TB (Abebe, 2012). As a part of a major project to identify protective immune markers in Mtb endemic population, we assessed specific antibody and cytokine responses against selected Mtb antigens (LAM, Rv2031, HBHA, the 38-kDa antigen, and ESAT-6/CFP-10) in pulmonary TB patients (PTBP), their household contacts (HHCs) and community controls (CCs) longitudinally.
Our results show that the levels of IFN-γ (Th1) and IgA (Th2) against HBHA (a promising candidate vaccine) were elevated concurrently in CCs (with no history of clinical TB) compared to PTBP and HHCs (Mtb infected). On the other hand, the level of IFN-γ against ESAT-6/CFP-10 (another candidate vaccine) was elevated in PTBP but was depressed in HHCs and CCs (with no clinical TB). Results of the present study may suggest that there is a synergy between Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th2 (IgA) responses against HBHA of Mtb. These results will be discussed in line with emerging evidence for the protective role of antibodies agains Myb infection and the Th1/Th2 paradigm.
Civil-Military-Interaction-Command Royal Dutch Armed Forces, Netherlands
Keynote: Zoonotic diseases threat needs sharing of information and new diagnostic systems in less developed countries
Time : 11:10-11:55
Stef Stienstra works internationally for several medical and biotech companies as scientific advisory board member and is also an active reserve-officer of the Royal Dutch Navy in his rank as Commander (OF4). For the Dutch Armed Forces he is CBRNe specialist with focus on (micro)biological and chemical threats and medical- and environmental functional specialist within the 1st CMI (Civil Military Interaction) Battalion of the Dutch Armed Forces. For Expertise France he is now managing an EU CBRN CoE public health project in West Africa. He is visiting professor at the University of Rome Tor Vergata giving lectures for the CBRN Master study. In his civilian position he is at this moment developing with MT-Derm in Berlin (Germany) a novel interdermal vaccination technology as well as a new therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis for which he has won a Canadian ‘Grand Challenge’ grant. With Hemanua in Dublin (Ireland) he has developed an innovative blood separation unit, which is also suitable to produce convalescent plasma for Ebola Virus Disease therapy. He has finished both his studies in Medicine and in Biochemistry in The Netherlands with a doctorate and has extensive practical experience in cell biology, immuno-hematology, infectious diseases, biodefense and transfusion medicine. His natural business acumen and negotiation competence helps to initiate new successful businesses, often generated from unexpected combinations of technologies.
Sharing public health threat information is a necessity for governments to prevent outbreaks of infectious diseases. Zoonotic diseases are the most dangerous for outbreaks running out of control, as the population does not have natural nor artificial (from vaccination) immune response to new emerging diseases. The recent Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in West Africa was such an example. New diagnostic methods, which can be performed in developing countries lacking critical infrastructure have to be developed to have an early response on (potential) outbreaks. It must be high tech with high reliability, which can be used in rural areas without proper infrastructure. The mitigation of highly infectious and deadly disease pandemics have to be recognized at the source. Sophisticated diagnostic equipment and good calibration, maintenance and interpretation of the results is essential. To identify pathogens at molecular level new technologies are under development. In developing countries military and civilian actors cooperate fruitfully in fighting potential biological threats. In this civil-military cooperation it is not only the biosafety, which has to be considered, but also the biosecurity, as misuse of extremely dangerous strains of microorganisms cannot be excluded.
Several zoonotic infectious diseases, like anthrax, small pox and also the hemorrhagic fevers like Ebola Virus Disease are listed as potential bioweapons. With this extra threat in mind, both biosafety and biosecurity have to be implemented in all mobile or fixed clinical laboratories. An information/computer network with a cloud in which essential information can be traced, helps in early detection of outbreaks of ‘new’, mostly zoonotic, infectious diseases. The same technology helps in the forensic aspects in case of a bioterror attack
Hitit University, Turkey
Huseyin Kayadibi has completed his Degree in Medicine at the Gülhane Military Medical Academy-School of Medicine, Turkey in 2000. He is an Associate Professor in Medical Biochemistry at Hitit University School of Medicine, where he is the Head of Medical Biochemistry. He worked at Pasarow Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, University of California Los Angeles in 2012 as a Visiting Scholar. He has been a Co-Investigator on NIH and other international projects about metabolomic, proteomic and lipidomic analysis. He is the Member of EFLM Working Group test evaluation and IFCC Working Group cerebrospinal fluid proteins. He has published more than 70 papers in peer reviewed journals. His research interests are Non-Invasive Assessment of Steatohepatitis, Liver Fibrosis, Separation Techniques and Mass Spectrometry.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is determined as the fatty liver with inflammation and fibrosis that resembles the alcoholic liver disease without the history of alcohol ingestion. Genetic and environmental factors are important in the pathogenesis of NASH. However, it is still unclear why some thin individuals develop NASH, while some obese individuals do not. Intestinal microbiota may be important in these situations. Because, microorganisms have some effects on energy homeostasis, activation of pro-inflammatory mediators and metabolism of bile acids, short chain fatty acids, choline and alcohol. Intestinal barrier components, tight junction, zonula adherence, desmosome, gap junction, integrin, selectin and cell adhesion molecule have very important roles in the gut liver axis for healthy liver. Because of intestinal barrier dysfunction causes the increased transfer of toxic metabolites to the liver from gut by the gut-liver axis. Increased levels of these substances in liver induce the multiple inflammatory processes by the activation of toll like receptors and nod like receptors that may result with the hepatitis and fibrosis. Microbial imbalance called dysbiosis may cause to the development of leaky gut and then NASH. In previously published articles, it was shown that intestinal dysbiosis and NASH are related with the lower prevalence of Bacteroidetes and higher prevalence of Firmicutes. Therefore, the species of microbiota may be important for elucidation of the pathogenesis of NASH. It was also shown that diversity of the intestinal microbiota has a key role for the pathogenesis of liver diseases. In future, studies with liver biopsy proven NASH patients will elucidate the role of intestinal microbiota and related metabolic components in the pathogenesis of NASH.